SIAD BARRE regime was ousted in January 1991; turmoil, factional
fighting, and anarchy have followed for eleven years. In May of 1991,
northern clans declared an independent Republic of Somaliland that now
includes the administrative regions of Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed,
Togdheer, Sanaag, and Sool. Although not recognized by any government,
this entity has maintained a stable existence, aided by the
overwhelming dominance of a ruling clan and economic infrastructure
left behind by British, Russian, and American military assistance
programs. The regions of Bari and Nugaal comprise a neighboring
self-declared autonomous state of Puntland, which has been
self-governing since 1998, but does not aim at independence; it has
also made strides towards reconstructing legitimate, representative
government. Puntland also claims Sool and eastern Sanaag. Beginning in
1993, a two-year UN humanitarian effort (primarily in the south) was
able to alleviate famine conditions, but when the UN withdrew in 1995,
having suffered significant casualties, order still had not been
restored. A Transitional National Government (TNG) was created in
August 2000 in Arta, Djibouti which was attended by a broad
representation of Somali clans. The TNG has a three-year mandate to
create a permanent national Somali government. The TNG does not
recognize Somaliland as an independent republic but so far has been
unable to reunite either Somaliland or Puntland with the unstable
regions in the south. Numerous warlords and factions are still fighting
for control of Mogadishu and the other southern regions. Suspicion of
Somali links with global terrorism complicate the picture.
of the world's poorest and least developed countries, Somalia has few
resources and is prone to drought. Moreover, much of the economy has
been devastated by civil war since 1991. Agriculture is the most
important sector, with livestock accounting for about 40% of GDP and
about 65% of export earnings. Nomads and semi-nomads, who are dependent
upon livestock for their livelihood, make up a large portion of the
population. Livestock, hides, charcoal, and bananas are Somalia's
principal exports, while sugar, sorghum, corn, fish, qat, and machined
goods are the principal imports. Somalia's small industrial sector,
based on the processing of agricultural products, has largely been
looted and sold as scrap metal. Despite the seeming anarchy, Somalia's
service sector has managed to survive and grow. Telecommunication firms
provide wireless services in most major cities and offer the lowest
international call rates on the continent. In the absence of a formal
banking sector, money exchange services have sprouted throughout the
country, handling between $200 million and $500 million in remittances
annually. Mogadishu's main market offers a variety of goods from food
to the newest electronic gadgets. Hotels continue to operate, and
security is provided by militias. Ongoing civil disturbances and clan
rivalries, however, have interfered with any broad-based economic
development and international aid arrangements. The failure of spring
rains caused major food shortages in the south in 2001. Economic data
is scare and prone to a wide margin of error.
Jan 1 - New Year's Day
Jan 21* - Eid al-Adha (Feast of the Sacrifice)
Feb 19* - Ashoura
Apr 21* - Mouloud (Birth of the Prophet)
May 1 - Labour Day
Jun 26 - Independence Day (North, ex-British Somaliland)
Jul 1 - Foundation of the Republic (Independence Day - South, ex-Italian Somaliland)
Nov 14-16* - Eid al-Fitr (End of Ramadan)
Muslim festivals(*) are timed according to local sightings of various
phases of the moon and the dates given above are approximations.
Country Code: 252
CIA - The World Factbook - Somalia
website indicates a wide range of detail information about Somalia by
introducing under 8 different fields as its geography, people,
government, economy, communications, transportation, military,
is available to find out Somalia's general outlook on the issues of its
social and business profile, passport/visa, money, accomodation,
government, duty free, health and so forth.
Business Directory - Somalia
offers business resources and services by creating cross-referenced
categories in business opportunities for Somalia as business to
business, classifieds, cooperatives, directories, organizations &
Seychelles Offshore Business Sectors
is available to get information about offshore business sectors in
Somalia which is a significant sector in terms of offering a range of
very attractive investment incentives.
serves as business oriented directory providing an ultimate African
Business Source for the potential investors seeking new business
opportunities in Somalia including the list of industries for Somalia.
There is available to find Somalia business, economic and political news.
Business in Somalia
website provides an extensive information gateway for Somalia in terms
of doing business with Somalia, legal guides to establishing business
in Somalia and so forth.
World Bank Group - Gateway for Somalia
World Bank Group represents a list of useful websites for Somalia.
Somalia - INDEX
is available to find out a list of sites were you can expect to find
specific information about Somalia when searching their database on the
Trade Guide for Somalia
is available to get comprehensive information not only about Somalian
imports, export regulations and other formalities and documents related
to commercial transactions but also main exported and imported products
& trading partners in Somalia and so forth.
U.S. Department of State - Bureau of Consular Affairs - For Somalia
Bureau of Consular Affairs creates a wide range of research named as
Consular Information Sheet about Somalia in terms of analyzing its
social, political, cultural & economic environments.
Embassy Listings For Somalia
There are listed the embassies of Somalia including the embassies' contact information.
displays the structure of Somalian government by looking at its
political units, branches, ministries and so forth in details.